Exercise 1.1

This exercise relates to the College data set, which can be found in the file College.csv on the website for the main course textbook James et al. http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~gareth/ISL/data.html. It contains a number of variables for 777 different universities and colleges in the US. The variables are

Before reading the data into R, it can be viewed in Excel or a text editor.

  1. Use the read.csv() function to read the data into R. Call the loaded data college. Make sure that you have the directory set to the correct location for the data.
college <- read.csv("http://faculty.marshall.usc.edu/gareth-james/ISL/College.csv")
  1. Look at the data using the View() function. This loads a matrix or data.frame object into the spreadhseet-like viewer in RStudio, just clicking the name of the object will do in the Environment panel. You should notice that the first column is just the name of each university. We don’t really want R to treat this as data. However, it may be handy to have these names for later. Try the following commands:
# View(college)
rownames(college) <- college[, 1]

You should see that there is now a row.names column with the name of each university recorded. This means that R has given each row a name corresponding to the appropriate university. R will not try to perform calculations on the row names. However, we still need to eliminate the first column in the data where the names are stored. Try

college <- college[, -1]
head(college)
##                              Private Apps Accept Enroll Top10perc
## Abilene Christian University     Yes 1660   1232    721        23
## Adelphi University               Yes 2186   1924    512        16
## Adrian College                   Yes 1428   1097    336        22
## Agnes Scott College              Yes  417    349    137        60
## Alaska Pacific University        Yes  193    146     55        16
## Albertson College                Yes  587    479    158        38
##                              Top25perc F.Undergrad P.Undergrad Outstate
## Abilene Christian University        52        2885         537     7440
## Adelphi University                  29        2683        1227    12280
## Adrian College                      50        1036          99    11250
## Agnes Scott College                 89         510          63    12960
## Alaska Pacific University           44         249         869     7560
## Albertson College                   62         678          41    13500
##                              Room.Board Books Personal PhD Terminal
## Abilene Christian University       3300   450     2200  70       78
## Adelphi University                 6450   750     1500  29       30
## Adrian College                     3750   400     1165  53       66
## Agnes Scott College                5450   450      875  92       97
## Alaska Pacific University          4120   800     1500  76       72
## Albertson College                  3335   500      675  67       73
##                              S.F.Ratio perc.alumni Expend Grad.Rate
## Abilene Christian University      18.1          12   7041        60
## Adelphi University                12.2          16  10527        56
## Adrian College                    12.9          30   8735        54
## Agnes Scott College                7.7          37  19016        59
## Alaska Pacific University         11.9           2  10922        15
## Albertson College                  9.4          11   9727        55

Now you should see that the first data column is Private. Note that another column labeled row.names now appears before the Private column. However, this is not a data column but rather the name that R is giving to each row.

    1. Use the summary() function to produce a numerical summary of the variables in the data set.
summary(college)
##  Private        Apps           Accept          Enroll       Top10perc    
##  No :212   Min.   :   81   Min.   :   72   Min.   :  35   Min.   : 1.00  
##  Yes:565   1st Qu.:  776   1st Qu.:  604   1st Qu.: 242   1st Qu.:15.00  
##            Median : 1558   Median : 1110   Median : 434   Median :23.00  
##            Mean   : 3002   Mean   : 2019   Mean   : 780   Mean   :27.56  
##            3rd Qu.: 3624   3rd Qu.: 2424   3rd Qu.: 902   3rd Qu.:35.00  
##            Max.   :48094   Max.   :26330   Max.   :6392   Max.   :96.00  
##    Top25perc      F.Undergrad     P.Undergrad         Outstate    
##  Min.   :  9.0   Min.   :  139   Min.   :    1.0   Min.   : 2340  
##  1st Qu.: 41.0   1st Qu.:  992   1st Qu.:   95.0   1st Qu.: 7320  
##  Median : 54.0   Median : 1707   Median :  353.0   Median : 9990  
##  Mean   : 55.8   Mean   : 3700   Mean   :  855.3   Mean   :10441  
##  3rd Qu.: 69.0   3rd Qu.: 4005   3rd Qu.:  967.0   3rd Qu.:12925  
##  Max.   :100.0   Max.   :31643   Max.   :21836.0   Max.   :21700  
##    Room.Board       Books           Personal         PhD        
##  Min.   :1780   Min.   :  96.0   Min.   : 250   Min.   :  8.00  
##  1st Qu.:3597   1st Qu.: 470.0   1st Qu.: 850   1st Qu.: 62.00  
##  Median :4200   Median : 500.0   Median :1200   Median : 75.00  
##  Mean   :4358   Mean   : 549.4   Mean   :1341   Mean   : 72.66  
##  3rd Qu.:5050   3rd Qu.: 600.0   3rd Qu.:1700   3rd Qu.: 85.00  
##  Max.   :8124   Max.   :2340.0   Max.   :6800   Max.   :103.00  
##     Terminal       S.F.Ratio      perc.alumni        Expend     
##  Min.   : 24.0   Min.   : 2.50   Min.   : 0.00   Min.   : 3186  
##  1st Qu.: 71.0   1st Qu.:11.50   1st Qu.:13.00   1st Qu.: 6751  
##  Median : 82.0   Median :13.60   Median :21.00   Median : 8377  
##  Mean   : 79.7   Mean   :14.09   Mean   :22.74   Mean   : 9660  
##  3rd Qu.: 92.0   3rd Qu.:16.50   3rd Qu.:31.00   3rd Qu.:10830  
##  Max.   :100.0   Max.   :39.80   Max.   :64.00   Max.   :56233  
##    Grad.Rate     
##  Min.   : 10.00  
##  1st Qu.: 53.00  
##  Median : 65.00  
##  Mean   : 65.46  
##  3rd Qu.: 78.00  
##  Max.   :118.00
  1. Use the pairs() function to produce a scatterplot matrix of the first ten columns or variables of the data. Recall that you can reference the first ten columns of a matrix A using A[,1:10].
pairs(college[, 1:10])

  1. Use the plot() function to produce side-by-side boxplots of Outstate versus Private.
plot(college$Private, college$Outstate,
     xlab = "Private University", ylab = "Tuition in $")

Boxplots of Outstate versus Private: Private universities have more out of state students

  1. Create a new qualitative variable, called Elite, by binning the Top10perc variable. We are going to divide universities into two groups based on whether or not the proportion of students coming from the top 10% of their high school classes exceeds 50%.
Elite <- rep("No", nrow(college))
Elite[college$Top10perc > 50] <- "Yes"
Elite <- as.factor(Elite)
college <- data.frame(college, Elite)

Use the summary() function to see how many elite universities there are. Now use the plot() function to produce side-by-side boxplots of Outstate versus Elite.

summary(Elite)
##  No Yes 
## 699  78
plot(college$Elite, college$Outstate, 
     xlab = "Elite University", ylab = "Tuition in $")